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武大广博【2014年高考英语】20组易错动词汇总

发布者:admin 发布时间:2014-5-23 阅读:257


第一组:

spend/ take /cost

①spend的主语通常是“人”,即“某人在─花多少时间或金钱。”

例句:

1)The boy spends a lot of money.(in) playing computer games.(那个男孩花了很多钱玩电子游戏。)

2)She spent lots of money on books last year.(去年她花费很多钱在书本上。)

②take前常以it作形式主语,作“做某事需要花多少时间。”

It takes +(人)+时间+ to do sth.

1)How long does it take you to finish the work?(你需要多少时间才能完成那工作?)

2)It took me an hour to repair my bike.

(我花了一个小时修理自行车。)

3)It takes a lot of courage to tell the truth.

(说真话需要很大的勇气。)

③cost的主语通常是事物,即指 ①某物值多少钱②需要多少时间③某人花了多少钱④使(某人)(丧失)(事/物)+cost+(人)+时间/金钱

1)The watch cost me two hundred yuan.

(这块手表花了我200块钱。)

2)Writing a novel cost plenty of time.

(写本小说要花很多时间。)

3)The girl's bad behavior cost her parents many sleepless nights.

(那个女孩的不良行为使得她的父母许多夜晚睡不着。)

注意:cost的过去式,过去分词都是cost。

第二组:

speak/say/tell/talk

①speak说某种语言,说某人好、坏话是及物动词;发表讲话,对某人说话,是不及物动词。

1)The students speak English very fluently.(这些学生英语说得非常流利。)

2)The Prime Minister spoke on the international situation.(首相就国际形势发表了演说。)

3)She always speaks ill of others.(她总是说别人的坏话。)

②speak的习惯用语:

Generally speaking 一般而言

Frankly speaking 坦白地说

Strictly speaking 严格地说

not to speak of 且不说;更不用说

1)Generally speaking, man is stronger than woman.(一般而言,男人比女人强壮。)

2)We can speak English, not to speak of Chinese.(我们会读英语,汉语更不用说了。)

③ ①tell说谎;讲故事;说实话

1)Don't tell a lie.(不要说谎。)

2)She likes to tell stories.(她喜欢讲故事。)

3)We should always tell the truth.(我们应该永远说实话。)

③ ②tell辨别;叫某人做某事;接“间接”与“直接”宾语;tell+宾语+that从句

1)Sometimes we can't tell right from wrong.(有时我们无法辨别是非。)

④talk连续地说话;习惯用法

1)What are the girls talking about ?(那些女孩们讲什么?)

2)Young people like to talk politics.(年青人喜欢谈论政治。)

3)I talked over the matter with her.(我与她谈论了那个问题。)

④say说出某句话或某件事;后接从句,(但say与从句之间不能直接接人称代词或名词);说明时间;书信、布告报纸上的“说”,习惯用法

1)She said ,“I love you.”(她说:“我爱你。”)

2)Say goodbye to them.(跟他们说再见。)

3)She says she is busy.(她说她很忙。)

4)My watch says 10:00 sharp.(我的表是十点整。)

5)The paper says that there was a big fire in Shanghai.(报上说上海发生了一场大火)。

6)It is said that she has been away for a month.(据说她已走了一个月了)

7)It goes without saying that education is important.(不用说,教育是重要的。)

8)Tom is a good student, that is to say, he gets good grades in school.(Tom是个好学生,也就是说,他在学校的成绩很好。)

第三组:

take /bring/carry/fetch

①take作“带去”“拿去”解;从近处把东西送到远处

例句:

1)She'll take her children to the park.(她要带孩子去公园。)

2)It's raining, you'd better take an umbrella with you.(下雨了;你最好把雨伞带上。)

②bring“拿来;带来”;从远处把东西拿到近外

1)Bring the dictionary to me.(把字典拿给我。)

2)Please bring your report with you when you come tomorrow.(明天你来的时候,请把你的报告带来。)

③carry作“携带,带去;搬运”解

1)She always carries a red handbag.(她总是带一个红色手包。)

2)Please carry this TV set upstairs.(请把这台电视搬到楼上去。)

④fetch作“去…取来,拿来;叫某人来”解

1)The football is over there. Fetch it please.(足球在那边呢,请把它拿回来。)

2)Fetch the police at once. We've found the robber.(马上去叫警察来,我们已经发现那个抢劫的人。)

第四组:

wear/put on/ dress

①wear穿着,戴;留,表示“状态”是及物动词需加宾语

例句:

1)She always wears a pair of glasses.(她总是戴着一副眼镜。)

2)He wears a black jacket today.(今天他穿着一件黑色的夹克。)

②put on穿上,戴上,表示“动作”

例句:

1)The teacher put on his hat and went out of the office.(老师戴上帽子然后走出办公室。)

2)Put on the gloves .It's cold outside.(戴上手套外面很凉。)

③dress作“穿着…的衣服”解;给某人穿衣服不用写衣服

例句:

1)She is dressed in red.(她穿着红衣服。)

2)The mother dresses the child every day.(那位母亲每天给孩子穿衣服。)此句不能加衣服。

3)She dresses herself in red.(此句等于第一个例句。)

第五组:

do /make

①do“做”主要是用来表示“行动”“行为”,如do omelets是“把蛋卷煎好”。在do后面常加一些抽象名词,如do wrong(犯错)。“wrong”是抽象名词常与do搭配的短语有:

①do one's

②do (the) some

③do sb. a favor帮人忙

④do with利用;忍受;需要

⑤do away with废除

⑥do without用不着;不需要

⑦have

⑧do sb.

⑨do nothing but do除了做…以外什么也没做

⑩do business做生意

例句:

1)I'll do the dishes today.

(今天我来洗盘子。)

2)I've done my homework.

(我已经做完了作业。)

3)Crying does harm to you.

(哭对你没有益处。)

4)Will you do me a favor?

(能否帮我一个忙?)

5)We cannot do without a telephone in our business.(我们做生意没有电话是不行的。)

6)The new teacher didn't know what to do with the class.(新老师不知道如何对待他班上的学生。)

7)I did nothing but watch TV last night.(昨晚我除了看电视以外什么也没有做。)

8)Who does your hair?(平常是谁给你做头发的?)

②make“作”,表示“制造”,其后的宾语是make的产品。如make clothes 制做衣服;make后常跟一些可数名词常与make动词搭配的短语有:

①make a

②make an

③make

④make

例句:

1) They have make great progress in learning English.(在学习英语方面他们已经取得了很大的进步。)

2)Who is going to make a speech today?(今天谁来演说?)

3)Don't make a noise.嘘!(不要出声。)

4)She makes her living as a teacher.(她作教师来维持生计。)

第六组:

lie/lay/lie

1)lie不及物动词,躺;位于

lie—lay—lain—lying

例句:①Shanghai lies to the south of Beijing.(上海位于北京的南方。)

②She has lain in bed for three days.(她已经在床上躺了三天了。)

2)lay及物动词,放置;下蛋

lay—laid—laid—laying

例句:①These hens lay eggs every day.(这些鸡每天下蛋。)

②He laid his hand on my shoulder.(他把手放在我的肩上。)

③lie不及物动词,说谎

lie—lied—lied—lying

例句:①Don’t lie to me.(别骗我。)

②She lies about her career.(她编造她的经历。)

第七组:

hear/listen to

①hear听;是一种“自然无意的动作。”hear of听说过hear from得到消息

例句:The deaf cannot hear.

(聋子听不见。)

②listen是一种“有意的动作。”如后面有宾语则需加to;如没有宾语,listen后不可加to。

例句:①Listen, somebody is crying.(听,有人在哭。)

②I listened but heard nothing.(我注意听了,但没听见什么。)

③Listen to me.(听我说。)

第八组:

sit/set/seat

①sit不及物动;坐;就座;

sit—sat—sat—sitting

例句:①He sat at the table writing a letter.(他坐在书桌旁写信。)

②Sit here until she comes back.(坐在这里等她回来。)

③set安置;下沉;点燃;出考题;定时;树立(榜样)

set—set—set—setting

例句:①Tom, set the table for dinner.(Tom,摆好桌子准备吃饭。)

②He set the alarm for 6:00 in the morning.(他把闹钟定在早晨6点钟。)

③My teacher set very difficult questions for the exam.(我们老师试题出得非常难。)

④The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.(太阳从东方升起从西方落下。)

③seat使坐;容纳

seat—seated—seated—seating

例句:①)The theater can seat at least 2000 people.(这家戏院至少能容纳2000人。)

②Please be seated.(请坐下。)此句等于Sit down please.

③He seated himself next to her.(他坐在她的旁边。)

第九组:

rise/raise/arise/arouse/rouse

1)rise(太阳、月亮)升起,起来;(物价)上涨;(水)高涨

rise—rose—risen—rising

例句:①Everyone knows that the sun rises in the east.

(每人都知道太阳是从东方升起。)

②Prices have risen quickly.

(物价快速上涨了。)

③She rose to her feet.

(她站了起来。)

2)raise举起;养育;募款

raise—raised—raised—raising

例句:①Raise your hand please.(请你把手举起来。)

②The farmer raises a lot of sheep on his farm.(这位农民在农场养了许多绵羊。)

③They are raising founds for the expedition.(他们正在筹募探险的基金。)

④arise(问题、困难)发生、产生、出现;起(风、雾)

arise—arose—arisen—arising

例句:①A strong wind arose this morning.(今天早上刮起强风。)

②A different problem has arisen.(不同的问题发生了。)

③A mist arose from the lake.(湖上起雾了。)

④arouse通常表示比喻或情绪方面的“激发”

arouse─aroused─aroused─arousing

例句:①The book aroused my interest in learning English.(这本书引起我对学习英语感兴趣。)

②The speaker aroused the anger of the audience.(演讲者激起了听众的怒气。)

③rouse通常表示比较具体的“叫醒”或“唤醒”

rouse─roused─roused─rousing

例句:①The sound roused him from reflection.(声音使他从深思中惊醒。)

②The lies he heard about his friend roused his anger.(听到有人对他朋友造谣,使他怒火中烧。)

第十组:

lend/借出borrow

1)lend+人+物=lend+物+to+人

例如:①Please lend me your dictionary.=Please lend your dictionary to me.(请把你的字典借给我。)

②I will lend you $200, but I can’t lend money to him.(我借给你200美元,但我不能借钱给他。)

borrow借入

borrow+物+from+人

①She has borrowed a lot of books from the school library.(她已从学校的图书馆借了很多书。)

②He often borrows money from me.(他经常从我这儿借钱。)

第十一组:

fall/feel/fell/fail/

fall─fell─fallen落下;跌倒

fall asleep睡着/fall behind落后

例句:①An apple fell to the ground.(一个苹果落在地上。)

②Be careful on the ice or you will fall.(在冰上要小心,否则你会跌倒。)

feel─felt─felt

feel like+doing sth.想要;

feel sleepy.想睡

例句:①Can you feel your heart beat violently?(你能感觉到你的心在猛烈地跳动吗?)

②Both my legs didn’t feel.(我的双腿没有感觉。)

③I suddenly felt a pain in my back.(我突然感到背部疼痛。)

④Do you feel like taking a walk?(你想不想去散步?)

fell─felled─felled砍伐

例句:A lot of trees were felled last night.(昨晚很多树被人伐倒了。)

fail─failed─failed失败

例句:He has failed in English exam again.(他英语考试又没及格。)

第十二组:

win/beat

win─won─won

win a prize得到奖品win a war打了胜仗

win a game赢得比赛win an election选举获胜

例句:①Our team won the same 3 to 2 last night.(昨晚我们队以3比2赢了比赛。)

②Who do you think will win the beauty contest?(你认为那场选美谁会获胜?)

③beat─beat─beaten

beat是打败了对手

例句:①He beat me in the race.(他在赛跑中赢了我。)

②We have beaten their team for 3 years.(我们已连续3年打败他们的球队。)

③My heart beat fast at the sight of her.(一看见她,我的心跳就加快。)

第十三组:

cure/recover/restore/heal

1)cure——cured——cured 治疗(疾病)

物+cure+人+of+病=人+be cured of+病

例句:①This medicine will cure your headache.(这种药会治好你的头痛病。)

②The doctor cured her of a cold.(医生医好了她的感冒。)

③She was cured of her disease.(她的痛被治好了。)

2)recover——recovered——recovered

恢复(健康);痊愈;复元与from连用

例句:①After a few days' rest, she has recovered her health.(休息几天后,她已恢复健康。)

②They haven't recovered from the shock yet.(他们还未从那次打击中恢复过来。)

3)restore——restored——restored

使…恢复健康;修复;重建

例句:①The doctor restored the girl to health.(医生恢复了那个女孩的健康。)

=The girl was restored to health.

②The workers have already restored the ruined temple.(工人们已修复了这座毁坏的寺庙。)

4)heal——healed——healed

主要指伤口的治愈;消除;平息。

例句:①His wound is not yet healed.(他的伤口尚未痊愈。)

②Time heals all broken hearts.(时间可以消除一切忧伤。)

第十四组:

reach/arrive/get to

1)reach——reached——reached

及物动词到达,不加to等分词。

例句:They will reach Shanghai tonight.(今晚他们将抵达上海。)

2)arrive——arrived——arrived

不及物动词到达,加介词in(大地方)at小地方。

例句:①I'll phone you when I arrive in New York.(我到纽约后会给你电话。)

②What time will they arrive at the airport?

(他们什么时候会到达机场?)

3)get——got——gotten(got)

不及物动词需加上to加上地点表示到达,但接地点副词时不加to。

例句:①What time does the train get to Beijing?(火车什么时间到达北京?)

②When I set to Japan, I'll write to you.(我到了日本就给你写信。)

③They got home safely.(他们平安到家。)

注①:此处home是副词不能加to。

注②:“到达”reach=arrive at (in)=get to

到达上海 到达家/这里/那里

第十五组:

hang/hang

1)hang——hanged——hanged

及物动词吊死;处(人)绞刑;上吊。

例句:①He hanged himself last week.(上星期他上吊自杀了。)

②The man was hanged for murder.(那个男子因谋杀罪被处绞刑。)

hang——hung——hung

及物动词把…挂上;把…吊起。

例句:①She hung curtains over the windows.(她把窗帘挂上窗上。)

②A picture is hung on the wall.(墙上挂着一幅画。)

第十六组:

affect/effect

1)affect——affected——affected

及物动词对…影响,感动(人的)心,使感动

例句:①The noise from the street affected our study.

(马路上的噪音影响我们学习。)

②Her story affected us deeply.

(她的故事深深地打动我们的心。)

2)effect——effected——effected

及物动词使产生;实现…(目的),造成…(结果)

effect很少作动词用,通常只跟change连用。

例句①It will effect, no change of importance.

(不会引起重大的变化。)

第十七组:

thank/appreciate

1)thank——thanked——thanked

感谢,后接人

例句:①You don't have to thank me.(你不必向我道谢。)

②She thanked me for my help.(她感谢我帮忙。)

③appreciate——appreciated——appreciated

感激;欣赏,后接事或物

例句:①I greatly appreciate your help.(我很感激你的帮助。)

②She doesn't appreciate good English poetry.(她不会欣赏好的英语诗歌。)

第十八组:

choose/select/elect/pick out

1)choose——chose——chosen

挑选;选拔;选择,指凭自己的判断力在人或物中进行挑选,而不强调精选。

例句:①I'd like to choose a new tie for me.(我想给自己挑一条新领带。)

②I want to choose her a nice present.(我想要挑选一份精美的礼物送给她。)

③The football players chose him as their team leader.(足球队员们选他当队长。)

2)select精选;挑选;选定,强调慎重考虑后的选择。

例句:①The farmer taught us how to select seeds.(这位农民教我们如何选种。)

②She was selected from among many applicants.(她是从许多报名者中选拔出来的。)

③Have you read selected works of Lu Xun?(你读过《鲁迅选集》吗?)

3)elect选举;推选

例句:①We elected her monitor.(我们推选她为班长。)

②We elected him mayor.(我们选他为市长。)

③pick out 认出;挑出;挑选;多用口语

例句:①I picked out an old friend in a crowd.(我从人群中认出了一位老朋友。)

②She picked out the shoes that match the dress.(她选出搭配那件衣服的鞋子。)

第十九组:

join/join in/take part in/attend

1)join及物动词加入(团体,组织,参军)、同……一起干或玩、连接

例句:①I joined the Party in 1975.(我1975年入党。)

②His brother joined the army two years ago.(两年前他哥哥参军。)

③They are planning to join the two towns by a railway.(他们在计划用一条铁路把两个镇连接起来。)

2)join in 参加(某些活动)

例句:①May I join in your discussion?(我可以参加你们的讨论吗?)

②Many people join in the game every year.(每年许多人参加这个游戏活动。)

③He joined in the work without a second thought.(他未加思索地参加了那项工作。)

3)take part in 参加(群众性活动,会议等)参加者持积极态度,起一份作用。

例句:①A lot of students took part in the thorough cleaning yesterday.(昨天许多学生参加大扫除。)

②A lot of college students took part in the movement last year.

(去年很多大学生参加了那个运动。)

4)attend 出席,参加,到场;上学

例句:①Did you attend the meeting last week?

(上星期你出席会议了吗?)

②He was ill so he didn't attend his classes.

(他生病了,所以没上学。)

注意:attend的词语搭配

attend a ceremony 参加典礼

attend a funeral 参加葬礼

attend a lecture 听演讲

attend a concert 听音乐会

attend church 上教堂

第二十组:

beat/hit/strike

1)beat——beat——beaten(连续地)打;击败;(心)跳动

例句:①My heart is beating fast.(我的心跳得很快。)

②They beat us in the match.(在这次比赛中,他们把我们击败了。)

③The rain was beating on the windows.(雨点敲打着窗子。)

2)hit 打;击中;想出(后接on)

例句:①The football hit him in the eye.(足球打在他的眼睛上了。)

②He hit on a good idea.(他想出了一个好主意。)

③He hit his head hard on the floor when he fell down.(当他倒下时,头重重地碰到地板上。)

3)strike——struck——struck

打;敲;打动(心);擦(火柴);报时;突然想到,用途较广。

例句:①Strike while the iron is hot.(趁热打铁。)

②Don't strike the man with a stick.(不要用棒子打那个男人。)



 

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